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E-cigarette Dependence Measures in Dual Users: Reliability and Relations With Dependence Criteria and E-cigarette Cessation.
- Author(s): Piper, Megan E;
- Baker, Timothy B;
- Benowitz, Neal L;
- Smith, Stevens S;
- Jorenby, Douglas E
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7368344/pdf/ntz040.pdf
No data is associated with this publication.
BackgroundElectronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have drastically changed the nicotine and tobacco product landscape. However, their potential public health impact is still unclear. A reliable and valid measure of e-cigarette dependence would likely advance assessment and prognostication of the public health impact of e-cigarettes. The aim of this research was to examine the internal consistency, structure, and validity of three e-cigarette dependence scales.
MethodsAdult dual users (smokers who also vape, N = 256) enrolled in an observational cohort study (45.1% women, 70.7% white). At baseline, participants completed the e-cigarette Fagerström Test of Cigarette Dependence (e-FTCD), the e-cigarette Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (e-WISDM), and the Penn State Electronic Cigarette Dependence Index (PS-ECDI). All participants provided a urine sample for cotinine analysis and reported e-cigarette use at 1 year.
ResultsThe e-WISDM subscales had the highest internal consistency (α = .81-.96), then the PS-ECDI (α = .74) and e-FTCD (α = .51). A single-factor structure for the e-FTCD and an 11-factor structure for the e-WISDM were supported, but the PS-ECDI did not have a single-factor structure. All three e-cigarette dependence scales were highly correlated with validation criteria including continued e-cigarette use at 1 year, but not with e-liquid nicotine concentration or cotinine.
ConclusionsThe e-WISDM and PS-ECDI had stronger internal consistency than did the e-FTCD, despite the e-FTCD's single-factor structure, but all 3 measures appear to be valid measures of e-cigarette dependence as suggested by their significant relations with self-perceived addiction, heavy use, early use after overnight deprivation, and continued use over time.
ImplicationsThis research provides empirical support for three e-cigarette dependence measures: the e-FTCD, the PS-ECDI, and the e-WISDM among dual users of e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes. The PS-ECDI and e-WISDM are more reliable, but all three measures were strongly correlated with key dependence constructs such as heavy use and continued use over time.
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