Exosomes promote pre-metastatic niche formation in ovarian cancer.
- Author(s): Feng, Wenlong
- Dean, Dylan C
- Hornicek, Francis J
- Shi, Huirong
- Duan, Zhenfeng
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s12943-019-1049-4
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynecological malignancies. Upon initial diagnosis, the majority of patients present with widespread metastatic growth within the peritoneal cavity. This metastatic growth occurs in stages, with the formation of a pre-metastatic niche occurring prior to macroscopic tumor cell invasion. Exosomes released by the primary ovarian tumor are small extracellular vesicles which prepare the distant tumor microenvironment for accelerated metastatic invasion. They regulate intercellular communication between tumor cells and normal stroma, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and local immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we highlight the emerging roles of ovarian cancer exosomes as coordinators of pre-metastatic niche formation, biomarkers amenable to liquid biopsy, and targets of chemotherapy.