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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Comparison of Chlorantraniliprole and Flubendiamide Activity Toward Wild-Type and Malignant Hyperthermia-Susceptible Ryanodine Receptors and Heat Stress Intolerance.

  • Author(s): Truong, Kim M
  • Pessah, Isaac N
  • et al.

Chlorantraniliprole (CP) and flubendiamide (FD) are widely used in agriculture globally to control lepidopteran pests. Both insecticides target ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and promote Ca2+ leak from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) within insect skeletal muscle yet are purportedly devoid of activity toward mammalian RyR1 and muscle. RyRs are ion channels that regulate intracellular Ca2+ release from SR during physiological excitation-contraction coupling. Mutations in RYR1 genes confer malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS), a potentially lethal pharmacogenetic disorder in humans and animals. Compared with vehicle control, CP (10 µM) triggers a 65-fold higher rate of Ca2+ efflux from Ca2+-loaded mammalian WT-RyR1 SR vesicles, whereas FD (10 µM) produces negligible influence on Ca2+ leak. We, therefore, compared whether CP or FD differentially influence patterns of high-affinity [3H]ryanodine ([3H]Ry) binding to RyR1 isolated from muscle SR membranes prepared from adult C57BL/6J mice expressing WT, homozygous C-terminal MHS mutation T4826I, or heterozygous N-terminal MHS mutation R163C. Basal [3H]Ry binding differed among genotypes with rank order T4826I ≫R163C∼WT, regardless of [Ca2+] in the assay medium. Both CP and FD (0.01-100 µM) elicited concentration-dependent increase in [3H]Ry binding, although CP showed greater efficacy regardless of genotype or [Ca2+]. Exposure to CP (500 mg/kg; p.o) failed to shift intolerance to heat stress (38°C) characteristic of R163C and T4826I MHS mice, nor cause lethality in WT mice. Although nM-µM of either diamide is capable of differentially altering WT and MHS RyR1 conformation in vitro, human RyR1 mutations within putative diamide N- and C-terminal interaction domains do not alter heat stress intolerance (HSI) in vivo.

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