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Tumor-derived CSF-1 induces the NKG2D ligand RAE-1δ on tumor-infiltrating macrophages.

  • Author(s): Thompson, Thornton W
  • Jackson, Benjamin T
  • Li, P Jonathan
  • Wang, Jiaxi
  • Kim, Alexander Byungsuk
  • Huang, Kristen Ting Hui
  • Zhang, Lily
  • Raulet, David H
  • et al.

NKG2D is an important immunoreceptor expressed on the surface of NK cells and some T cells. NKG2D recognizes a set of ligands typically expressed on infected or transformed cells, but recent studies have also documented NKG2D ligands on subsets of host non-tumor cells in tumor-bearing animals and humans. Here we show that in transplanted tumors and genetically engineered mouse cancer models, tumor-associated macrophages are induced to express the NKG2D ligand RAE-1δ. We find that a soluble factor produced by tumor cells is responsible for macrophage RAE-1δ induction, and we identify tumor-derived colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) as necessary and sufficient for macrophage RAE-1δ induction in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we show that induction of RAE-1δ on macrophages by CSF-1 requires PI3K p110α kinase signaling. Thus, production of CSF-1 by tumor cells leading to activation of PI3K p110α represents a novel cellular and molecular pathway mediating NKG2D ligand expression on tumor-associated macrophages.

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