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Acute myeloid leukemia cell membrane-coated nanoparticles for cancer vaccination immunotherapy


Cancer vaccines are promising treatments to prevent relapse after chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, particularly for those who cannot tolerate intensive consolidation therapies. Here, we report the development of an AML cell membrane-coated nanoparticle (AMCNP) vaccine platform, in which immune-stimulatory adjuvant-loaded nanoparticles are coated with leukemic cell membrane material. This AMCNP vaccination strategy stimulates leukemia-specific immune responses by co-delivering membrane-associated antigens along with adjuvants to antigen-presenting cells. To demonstrate that this AMCNP vaccine enhances leukemia-specific antigen presentation and T cell responses, we modified a murine AML cell line to express membrane-bound chicken ovalbumin as a model antigen. AMCNPs were efficiently acquired by antigen-presenting cells in vitro and in vivo and stimulated antigen cross-presentation. Vaccination with AMCNPs significantly enhanced antigen-specific T cell expansion and effector function compared with control vaccines. Prophylactic vaccination with AMCNPs enhanced cellular immunity and protected against AML challenge. Moreover, in an AML post-remission vaccination model, AMCNP vaccination significantly enhanced survival in comparison to vaccination with whole leukemia cell lysates. Collectively, AMCNPs retained AML-specific antigens, elicited enhanced antigen-specific immune responses, and provided therapeutic benefit against AML challenge.

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