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Greater Levels of Self-Reported Adherence to Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) are Associated with Increased Condomless Sex Among Men Who Have Sex with Men

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The effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV acquisition depends on treatment adherence; however, within-person associations between levels of PrEP adherence and engagement in condomless sex have not been well studied. In the context of a demonstration project, 372 men who have sex with men received once-daily PrEP and completed six study visits over 48 weeks. Two-part growth mixture modeling was used to examine the longitudinal trajectory of condomless anal intercourse (CAI) and self-reports of PrEP adherence, controlling for relevant covariates. Over time, greater PrEP adherence was contemporaneously associated with both a higher likelihood of engaging in any CAI and with a greater number of CAI acts. Substance use was also associated with a higher likelihood of engaging in CAI. Contemporaneous associations between self-reported PrEP adherence and CAI suggest that adherence behaviors may be motivated by the desire to mitigate risk of HIV infection; however, exact directionality is unknown.

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