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Three-Dimensional Myoarchitecture of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter and Esophageal Hiatus Using Optical Sectioning Microscopy.

  • Author(s): Zifan, Ali
  • Kumar, Dushyant
  • Cheng, Leo K
  • Mittal, Ravinder K
  • et al.
Abstract

Studies to date have failed to reveal the anatomical counterpart of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). We assessed the LES and esophageal hiatus morphology using a block containing the human LES and crural diaphragm, serially sectioned at 50 μm intervals and imaged at 8.2 μm/pixel resolution. A 3D reconstruction of the tissue block was reconstructed in which each of the 652 cross sectional images were also segmented to identify the boundaries of longitudinal (LM) and circular muscle (CM) layers. The CM fascicles on the ventral surface of LES are arranged in a helical/spiral fashion. On the other hand, the CM fascicles from the two sides cross midline on dorsal surface and continue as sling/oblique muscle on the stomach. Some of the LM fascicles of the esophagus leave the esophagus to enter into the crural diaphragm and the remainder terminate into the sling fibers of the stomach. The muscle fascicles of the right crus of diaphragm which form the esophageal hiatus are arranged like a "noose" around the esophagus. We propose that circumferential squeeze of the LES and crural diaphragm is generated by a unique myo-architectural design, each of which forms a "noose" around the esophagus.

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