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Additive and synergistic relations of early mother-child and caregiver-child interactions for predicting later achievement.


This study examines associations between stimulating-responsive social interactions with mothers and nonparental childcare providers during the first 3 years of life and children's vocabulary and mathematics skills through age 15 (N = 1,364). Additive relations were found in which more stimulating-responsive interactions with mothers and with caregivers were linked to higher mathematics achievement in childhood and adolescence. More stimulating-responsive early interactions with mothers were also associated with larger child vocabularies through age 15. Synergistic relations, consistent with the dual-risk hypothesis, also were found. Children whose early interactions with both mothers and caregivers were low in stimulation and responsivity had substantially lower mathematics skills. Implications for early childhood interventions and policies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

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