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Engineered Tumor-Targeted T Cells Mediate Enhanced Anti-Tumor Efficacy Both Directly and through Activation of the Endogenous Immune System.

  • Author(s): Avanzi, Mauro P
  • Yeku, Oladapo
  • Li, Xinghuo
  • Wijewarnasuriya, Dinali P
  • van Leeuwen, Dayenne G
  • Cheung, Kenneth
  • Park, Hyebin
  • Purdon, Terence J
  • Daniyan, Anthony F
  • Spitzer, Matthew H
  • Brentjens, Renier J
  • et al.
Abstract

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has proven clinically beneficial against B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, suboptimal clinical outcomes have been associated with decreased expansion and persistence of adoptively transferred CAR T cells, antigen-negative relapses, and impairment by an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Improvements in CAR T cell design are required to enhance clinical efficacy, as well as broaden the applicability of this technology. Here, we demonstrate that interleukin-18 (IL-18)-secreting CAR T cells exhibit enhanced in vivo expansion and persistence and significantly increase long-term survival in syngeneic mouse models of both hematological and solid malignancies. In addition, we demonstrate that IL-18-secreting CAR T cells are capable of modulating the tumor microenvironment, as well as enhancing an effective endogenous anti-tumor immune response. IL-18-secreting CAR T cells represent a promising strategy to enhance the clinical outcomes of adoptive T cell therapy.

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