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Open Access Publications from the University of California

On the suppression and distortion of non-equilibrium fluctuations by transpiration

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A fluid in a nonequilibrium state exhibits long-ranged correlations of its hydrodynamic fluctuations. In this article, we examine the effect of a transpiration interface on these correlations - specifically, we consider a dilute gas in a domain bisected by the interface. The system is held in a nonequilibrium steady state by using isothermal walls to impose a temperature gradient. The gas is simulated using both direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) and fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD). For the FHD simulations, two models are developed for the interface based on master equation and Langevin approaches. For appropriate simulation parameters, good agreement is observed between DSMC and FHD results with the latter showing a significant advantage in computational speed. For each approach, we quantify the effects of transpiration on long-ranged correlations in the hydrodynamic variables. The principal effect of transpiration is a suppression of the correlations, an outcome largely explained by a reduction in the temperature gradient due to the interface. We also observe a distortion of the temperature correlations, specifically the appearance of a new peak located near the interface.

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