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Methodology for Knowledge Synthesis of the Management of Vaccination Pain and Needle Fear



The objectives of this scoping review were to: (1) identify publicly available educational videos on needle pain management; and (2) evaluate the content of these videos.


Reviewers screened publicly available educational videos on pediatric needle pain management available on YouTube and Google using a broad-based search strategy. Videos were categorized using the CRAAP Test: Current, Relevant, from a trustworthy source (Authority), Accurate and evidence-based, and for what Purpose does the source exist.


Twenty-five relevant, educational videos were identified. The intended audience for most videos was parents (n=16, 64%), followed by clinicians (n=6, 24%) and children (n=3, 12%). Common examples of needle pain included immunizations or IV insertion, with interventions appropriate for infants through school-aged children. The most frequently described techniques were parent-guided distraction and behavioral factors such as comfort holds and parent demeanor. Most videos were Current (96%), Relevant (100%), created by a trustworthy source: Authority (76%), and all were Accurate, with Purpose relating to needle pain management. None of the videos addressed the unique needs of children with a preexisting diagnosis of needle phobia.


Publicly available educational videos offer clinicians, parents, and children evidence-based techniques to manage pediatric needle pain. Further evaluation is needed to determine whether this form of education meets the needs of target audiences and whether this type of content can lead to improved management of pediatric needle pain.

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