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Screening emergency department patients for opioid drug use: A qualitative systematic review.


INTRODUCTION:The opioid drug epidemic is a major public health concern and an economic burden in the United States. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the reliability and validity of screening instruments used in emergency medicine settings to detect opioid use in patients and to assess psychometric data for each screening instrument. METHODS:PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and were searched for articles published up to May 2018. The extracted articles were independently screened for eligibility by two reviewers. We extracted 1555 articles for initial screening and 95 articles were assessed for full-text eligibility. Six articles were extracted from the full-text assessment. RESULTS:Six instruments were identified from the final article list: Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain - Revised; Drug Abuse Screening Test; Opioid Risk Tool; Current Opioid Misuse Measure; an Emergency Medicine Providers Clinician Assessment Questionnaire; and an Emergency Provider Impression Data Collection Form. Screening instrument characteristics, and reliability and validity data were extracted from the six studies. A meta-analysis was not conducted due to heterogeneity between the studies. CONCLUSIONS:There is a lack of validity and reliability evidence in all six articles; and sensitivity, specificity and predictive values varied between the different instruments. These instruments cannot be validated for use in emergency medicine settings. There is no clear evidence to state which screening instruments are appropriate for use in detecting opioid use disorders in emergency medicine patients. There is a need for brief, reliable, valid and feasible opioid use screening instruments in the emergency medicine setting.

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