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New Insights into Aldol Reactions of Methyl Isocyanoacetate Catalyzed by Heterogenized Homogeneous Catalysts.

  • Author(s): Ye, Rong
  • Zhao, Jie
  • Yuan, Bing
  • Liu, Wen-Chi
  • Rodrigues De Araujo, Joyce
  • Faucher, Franco F
  • Chang, Matthew
  • Deraedt, Christophe V
  • Toste, F Dean
  • Somorjai, Gabor A
  • et al.
Abstract

The Hayashi-Ito aldol reaction of methyl isocyanoacetate (MI) and benzaldehydes, a classic homogeneous Au(I)-catalyzed reaction, was studied with heterogenized homogeneous catalysts. Among dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles (NPs) of Au, Pd, Rh, or Pt loaded in mesoporous supports and the homogeneous analogues, the Au NPs led to the highest yield and highest diastereoselectivity of products in toluene at room temperature. The Au catalyst was stable and was recycled for at least six runs without substantial deactivation. Moreover, larger pore sizes of the support and the use of a hydrophobic solvent led to a high selectivity for the trans diastereomer of the product. The activation energy is sensitive to neither the size of Au NPs nor the support. A linear Hammett plot was obtained with a positive slope, suggesting an increased electron density on the carbonyl carbon atom in the rate-limiting step. IR studies revealed a strong interaction between MI and the gold catalyst, supporting the proposed mechanism, in which rate-limiting step involves an electrophilic attack of the aldehyde on the enolate formed from the deprotonated MI.

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