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Open Access Publications from the University of California

M-44 Use by Non-USDA-Wildlife Services Applicators between 2006-2019 in Montana

  • Author(s): Vantassel, Stephen M.
  • et al.

Use of M-44 sodium cyanide devices has been opposed by various groups contending that M-44s threaten human health and safety and endanger non-target animals. In Montana, M-44 sodium cyanide devices may be used by non-USDA-Wildlife Services individuals licensed by the Montana Department of Agriculture. This paper summarizes the use data submitted by these non-federal applicators between 2006-2019. The data includes use records, take (both target and non-target), and livestock loss reports. It is hoped that this information provides additional data and context to inform the debate over this controversial predator management tool.

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