Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference
M-44 Use by Non-USDA-Wildlife Services Applicators between 2006-2019 in Montana
- Author(s): Vantassel, Stephen M.
- et al.
Use of M-44 sodium cyanide devices has been opposed by various groups contending that M-44s threaten human health and safety and endanger non-target animals. In Montana, M-44 sodium cyanide devices may be used by non-USDA-Wildlife Services individuals licensed by the Montana Department of Agriculture. This paper summarizes the use data submitted by these non-federal applicators between 2006-2019. The data includes use records, take (both target and non-target), and livestock loss reports. It is hoped that this information provides additional data and context to inform the debate over this controversial predator management tool.