Preclinical translation of exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.
- Author(s): Elahi, Fanny M
- Farwell, D Gregory
- Nolta, Jan A
- Anderson, Johnathon D
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1002/stem.3061
Exosomes are nanovesicles secreted by virtually all cells. Exosomes mediate the horizontal transfer of various macromolecules previously believed to be cell-autonomous in nature, including nonsecretory proteins, various classes of RNA, metabolites, and lipid membrane-associated factors. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) appear to be particularly beneficial for enhancing recovery in various models of disease. To date, there have been more than 200 preclinical studies of exosome-based therapies in a number of different animal models. Despite a growing number of studies reporting the therapeutic properties of MSC-derived exosomes, their underlying mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and scalable manufacturing remain largely outstanding questions. Here, we review the global trends associated with preclinical development of MSC-derived exosome-based therapies, including immunogenicity, source of exosomes, isolation methods, biodistribution, and disease categories tested to date. Although the in vivo data assessing the therapeutic properties of MSC-exosomes published to date are promising, several outstanding questions remain to be answered that warrant further preclinical investigation.