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Longitudinal Evaluation of Plasma Cytokine Levels in Patients with Invasive Candidiasis.


Interleukin (IL) 17A plays a decisive role in anti-Candida host defense. Previous data demonstrated significantly increased IL-17A values in candidemic patients. We evaluated levels and time courses of IL-17A, and other cytokines suggested to be involved in Candida-specific immunity (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-23, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, Pentraxin-related protein 3, transforming growth factor-β) in patients with invasive candidiasis (IC) compared to bacteremic patients (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli) and healthy controls (from previous 4 days up to day 14 relative to the index culture (-4; 14)). IL-17A levels were significantly elevated in all groups compared to healthy controls. In IC, the highest IL-17A values were measured around the date of index sampling (-1; 2), compared to significantly lower levels prior and after sampling the index culture. Candidemic patients showed significantly higher IL-17A values compared to IC other than candidemia at time interval (-1; 2) and (3; 7). No significant differences in IL-17A levels could be observed for IC compared to bacteremic patients. Candidemic patients had higher IL-8, IL-10, IL-22, IFN-γ, PTX3 and TNF-α values compared to non-candidemic. Based on the limited discriminating competence between candidemia and bacteremia, IL-17A has to be considered a biomarker for blood stream infection rather than invasive Candida infection.

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