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T cell activation and senescence predict subclinical carotid artery disease in HIV-infected women.

  • Author(s): Kaplan, Robert C;
  • Sinclair, Elizabeth;
  • Landay, Alan L;
  • Lurain, Nell;
  • Sharrett, A Richey;
  • Gange, Stephen J;
  • Xue, Xiaonan;
  • Hunt, Peter;
  • Karim, Roksana;
  • Kern, David M;
  • Hodis, Howard N;
  • Deeks, Steven G
  • et al.
Abstract

Background

Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased risk of cardiovascular events. It is unknown whether T cell activation and senescence, 2 immunologic sequelae of HIV infection, are associated with vascular disease among HIV-infected adults.

Methods

T cell phenotyping and carotid ultrasound were assessed among 115 HIV-infected women and 43 age- and race/ethnicity-matched HIV-uninfected controls participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of T cell activation (CD38(+)HLA-DR(+)) and senescence (CD28(-)CD57(+)) with subclinical carotid artery disease.

Results

Compared with HIV-uninfected women, frequencies of CD4(+)CD38(+)HLA-DR(+), CD8(+)CD38(+)HLA-DR(+), and CD8(+)CD28(-)CD57(+) T cells were higher among HIV-infected women, including those who achieved viral suppression while receiving antiretroviral treatment. Among HIV-infected women, adjusted for age, antiretroviral medications, and viral load, higher frequencies of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and immunosenescent CD8(+) T cells were associated with increased prevalence of carotid artery lesions (prevalence ratio(lesions) associated with activated CD4(+) T cells, 1.6 per SD [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.1-2.2]; P = .02; prevalence ratio(lesions) associated with activated CD8(+) T cells, 2.0 per SD [95% CI, 1.2-3.3]; P < .01; prevalence ratio(lesions) associated with senescent CD8(+) T cells, 1.9 per SD [95% CI, 1.1-3.1]; P = .01).

Conclusions

HIV-associated T cell changes are associated with subclinical carotid artery abnormalities, which may be observed even among those patients achieving viral suppression with effective antiretroviral therapy.

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