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Gate-tunable plasmons in mixed-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures


Surface plasmons, collective electromagnetic excitations coupled to conduction electron oscillations, enable the manipulation of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. Plasmon dispersion of metallic structures depends sensitively on their dimensionality and has been intensively studied for fundamental physics as well as applied technologies. Here, we report possible evidence for gate-tunable hybrid plasmons from the dimensionally mixed coupling between one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional (2D) graphene. In contrast to the carrier density-independent 1D Luttinger liquid plasmons in bare metallic carbon nanotubes, plasmon wavelengths in the 1D-2D heterostructure are modulated by 75% via electrostatic gating while retaining the high figures of merit of 1D plasmons. We propose a theoretical model to describe the electromagnetic interaction between plasmons in nanotubes and graphene, suggesting plasmon hybridization as a possible origin for the observed large plasmon modulation. The mixed-dimensional plasmonic heterostructures may enable diverse designs of tunable plasmonic nanodevices.

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