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Status of Lattice QCD Determination of Nucleon Form Factors and Their Relevance for the Few-GeV Neutrino Program


Calculations of neutrino-nucleus cross sections begin with the neutrino-nucleon interaction, making the latter critically important to flagship neutrino oscillation experiments despite limited measurements with poor statistics. Alternatively, lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) can be used to determine these interactions from the Standard Model with quantifiable theoretical uncertainties. Recent LQCD results of g are in excellent agreement with data, and results for the (quasi-)elastic nucleon form factors with full uncertainty budgets are expected within a few years. We review the status of the field and LQCD results for the nucleon axial form factor, F(Q), a major source of uncertainty in modeling sub-GeV neutrino-nucleon interactions. Results from different LQCD calculations are consistent but collectively disagree with existing models, with potential implications for current and future neutrino oscillation experiments. We describe a road map to solidify confidence in the LQCD results and discuss future calculations of more complicated processes, which are important to few-GeV neutrino oscillation experiments.

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