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Artificial intelligence-enabled fully automated detection of cardiac amyloidosis using electrocardiograms and echocardiograms


Patients with rare conditions such as cardiac amyloidosis (CA) are difficult to identify, given the similarity of disease manifestations to more prevalent disorders. The deployment of approved therapies for CA has been limited by delayed diagnosis of this disease. Artificial intelligence (AI) could enable detection of rare diseases. Here we present a pipeline for CA detection using AI models with electrocardiograms (ECG) or echocardiograms as inputs. These models, trained and validated on 3 and 5 academic medical centers (AMC) respectively, detect CA with C-statistics of 0.85-0.91 for ECG and 0.89-1.00 for echocardiography. Simulating deployment on 2 AMCs indicated a positive predictive value (PPV) for the ECG model of 3-4% at 52-71% recall. Pre-screening with ECG enhance the echocardiography model performance at 67% recall from PPV of 33% to PPV of 74-77%. In conclusion, we developed an automated strategy to augment CA detection, which should be generalizable to other rare cardiac diseases.

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