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In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Molybdenum Oxide Contacts for Silicon Solar Cells


In this study, a molybdenum oxide (MoO x ) and aluminum (Al) contact structure for crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells is investigated using a combination of transmission line measurements (TLM) and in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cross-sectional high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) micrographs reveal a ≈2 nm silicon oxide (SiO x ) interlayer at c-Si/MoO x interface in the as-deposited state, indicating that formation of SiO x occurs during deposition of MoO x . Moreover, oxygen diffusion takes place from MoO x toward Al resulting in the formation of a ≈2–3 nm aluminum oxide (AlO x ) interlayer at the MoO x /Al interface. Overall, it is observed that MoO x /Al contact is relatively stable upon annealing up to 200 °C and still retains ohmic transport with sufficiently low contact resistivity.

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