Wilms tumor and congenital anomalies in a population-based cohort study in Denmark
Cancer is the primary cause of death from disease in children past infancy in the United States, but little is known about its etiology. Studies have demonstrated an increased occurrence of congenital anomalies in children with Wilms tumor. Data from a population-based cohort study in Denmark between 1968 and 2014 were utilized to investigate the relationship between congenital anomalies and Wilms tumor cases. We ascertained 202 Wilms tumor cases and 4,040 controls. Odds ratios were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The data suggests potential increased odds of cryptorchidism (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.4, 6.3) and hernias (OR= 2.3, 95% CI 1.2, 4.4) in Wilms cases in our study cohort. The odds of cryptorchidism increased when adjusted on maternal age (OR= 11.3, 95% CI .94, 135.2). We also observed increased odds of hernia after adjusting for maternal age and maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR= 2.0, 95% CI 0.7, 5.8). This study supports the association between congenital anomalies and Wilms tumor and suggests that environmental factors also contribute to solid pediatric cancers.