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Consolidation mFOLFOX6 Chemotherapy After Chemoradiotherapy Improves Survival in Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: Final Results of a Multicenter Phase II Trial.

  • Author(s): Marco, Michael R
  • Zhou, Lihong
  • Patil, Sujata
  • Marcet, Jorge E
  • Varma, Madhulika G
  • Oommen, Samuel
  • Cataldo, Peter A
  • Hunt, Steven R
  • Kumar, Anjali
  • Herzig, Daniel O
  • Fichera, Alessandro
  • Polite, Blase N
  • Hyman, Neil H
  • Ternent, Charles A
  • Stamos, Michael J
  • Pigazzi, Alessio
  • Dietz, David
  • Yakunina, Yuliya
  • Pelossof, Raphael
  • Garcia-Aguilar, Julio
  • Timing of Rectal Cancer Response to Chemoradiation Consortium
  • et al.
Abstract

Background

Adding modified FOLFOX6 (folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) after chemoradiotherapy and lengthening the chemoradiotherapy-to-surgery interval is associated with an increase in the proportion of rectal cancer patients with a pathological complete response.

Objective

The purpose of this study was to analyze disease-free and overall survival.

Design

This was a nonrandomized phase II trial.

Settings

The study was conducted at multiple institutions.

Patients

Four sequential study groups with stage II or III rectal cancer were included.

Intervention

All of the patients received 50 Gy of radiation with concurrent continuous infusion of fluorouracil for 5 weeks. Patients in each group received 0, 2, 4, or 6 cycles of modified FOLFOX6 after chemoradiation and before total mesorectal excision. Patients were recommended to receive adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery to complete a total of 8 cycles of modified FOLFOX6.

Main outcome measures

The trial was powered to detect differences in pathological complete response, which was reported previously. Disease-free and overall survival are the main outcomes for the current study.

Results

Of 259 patients, 211 had a complete follow-up. Median follow-up was 59 months (range, 9-125 mo). The mean number of total chemotherapy cycles differed among the 4 groups (p = 0.002), because one third of patients in the group assigned to no preoperative FOLFOX did not receive any adjuvant chemotherapy. Disease-free survival was significantly associated with study group, ypTNM stage, and pathological complete response (p = 0.004, <0.001, and 0.001). A secondary analysis including only patients who received ≥1 cycle of FOLFOX still showed differences in survival between study groups (p = 0.03).

Limitations

The trial was not randomized and was not powered to show differences in survival. Survival data were not available for 19% of the patients.

Conclusions

Adding modified FOLFOX6 after chemoradiotherapy and before total mesorectal excision increases compliance with systemic chemotherapy and disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant consolidation chemotherapy may have benefits beyond increasing pathological complete response rates. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A739.

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