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422 Million intrinsic quality factor planar integrated all-waveguide resonator with sub-MHz linewidth


High quality-factor (Q) optical resonators are a key component for ultra-narrow linewidth lasers, frequency stabilization, precision spectroscopy and quantum applications. Integration in a photonic waveguide platform is key to reducing cost, size, power and sensitivity to environmental disturbances. However, to date, the Q of all-waveguide resonators has been relegated to below 260 Million. Here, we report a Si3N4 resonator with 422 Million intrinsic and 3.4 Billion absorption-limited Qs. The resonator has 453 kHz intrinsic, 906 kHz loaded, and 57 kHz absorption-limited linewidths and the corresponding 0.060 dB m−1 loss is the lowest reported to date for waveguides with deposited oxide upper cladding. These results are achieved through a careful reduction of scattering and absorption losses that we simulate, quantify and correlate to measurements. This advancement in waveguide resonator technology paves the way to all-waveguide Billion Q cavities for applications including nonlinear optics, atomic clocks, quantum photonics and high-capacity fiber communications.

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