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Precise multimodal optical control of neural ensemble activity.

  • Author(s): Mardinly, Alan R
  • Oldenburg, Ian Antón
  • Pégard, Nicolas C
  • Sridharan, Savitha
  • Lyall, Evan H
  • Chesnov, Kirill
  • Brohawn, Stephen G
  • Waller, Laura
  • Adesnik, Hillel
  • et al.

Understanding brain function requires technologies that can control the activity of large populations of neurons with high fidelity in space and time. We developed a multiphoton holographic approach to activate or suppress the activity of ensembles of cortical neurons with cellular resolution and sub-millisecond precision. Since existing opsins were inadequate, we engineered new soma-targeted (ST) optogenetic tools, ST-ChroME and IRES-ST-eGtACR1, optimized for multiphoton activation and suppression. Employing a three-dimensional all-optical read-write interface, we demonstrate the ability to simultaneously photostimulate up to 50 neurons distributed in three dimensions in a 550 × 550 × 100-µm3 volume of brain tissue. This approach allows the synthesis and editing of complex neural activity patterns needed to gain insight into the principles of neural codes.

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