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Role of the adjacent stroma cells in prostate cancer development and progression: synergy between TGF-β and IGF signaling.

  • Author(s): Lee, Chung
  • Jia, Zhenyu
  • Rahmatpanah, Farah
  • Zhang, Qiang
  • Zi, Xiaolin
  • McClelland, Michael
  • Mercola, Dan
  • et al.
Abstract

This review postulates the role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I/IGF-II) signaling in stromal cells during prostate carcinogenesis and progression. It is known that stromal cells have a reciprocal relationship to the adjacent epithelial cells in the maintenance of structural and functional integrity of the prostate. An interaction between TGF-β and IGF signaling occupies a central part in this stromal-epithelial interaction. An increase in TGF-β and IGF signaling will set off the imbalance of this relationship and will lead to cancer development. A continuous input from TGF-β and IGF in the tumor microenvironment will result in cancer progression. Understanding of these events can help prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of prostate cancer.

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