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Regulatory feedback on receptor and non-receptor synthesis for robust signaling.

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Elaborate regulatory feedback processes are thought to make biological development robust, that is, resistant to changes induced by genetic or environmental perturbations. How this might be done is still not completely understood. Previous numerical simulations on reaction-diffusion models of Dpp gradients in Drosophila wing imaginal disc have showed that feedback (of the Hill function type) on (signaling) receptors and/or non-(signaling) receptors are of limited effectiveness in promoting robustness. Spatial nonuniformity of the feedback processes has also been shown theoretically to lead to serious shape distortion and a principal cause for ineffectiveness. Through mathematical modeling and analysis, the present article shows that spatially uniform nonlocal feedback mechanisms typically modify gradient shape through a shape parameter (that does not change with location). This in turn enables us to uncover new multi-feedback instrument for effective promotion of robust signaling gradients.

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