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Single-trial cross-area neural population dynamics during long-term skill learning


Mammalian cortex has both local and cross-area connections, suggesting vital roles for both local and cross-area neural population dynamics in cortically-dependent tasks, like movement learning. Prior studies of movement learning have focused on how single-area population dynamics change during short-term adaptation. It is unclear how cross-area dynamics contribute to movement learning, particularly long-term learning and skill acquisition. Using simultaneous recordings of rodent motor (M1) and premotor (M2) cortex and computational methods, we show how cross-area activity patterns evolve during reach-to-grasp learning in rats. The emergence of reach-related modulation in cross-area activity correlates with skill acquisition, and single-trial modulation in cross-area activity predicts reaction time and reach duration. Local M2 neural activity precedes local M1 activity, supporting top-down hierarchy between the regions. M2 inactivation preferentially affects cross-area dynamics and behavior, with minimal disruption of local M1 dynamics. Together, these results indicate that cross-area population dynamics are necessary for learned motor skills.

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