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Live Flow Cytometry Analysis of c-di-GMP Levels in Single Cell Populations


Second-generation RNA-based fluorescent biosensors have been developed that enable flow cytometry experiments to monitor the population dynamics of c-di-GMP signaling in live bacteria. These experiments are high-throughput, provide information at the single-cell level, and can be performed on cells grown in complex media and/or under anaerobic conditions. Here, we describe flow cytometry methods for three applications: (1) high-throughput screening for diguanylate cyclase activity, (2) analyzing c-di-GMP levels under anaerobic conditions, and (3) monitoring cell population dynamics of c-di-GMP levels upon environmental changes. These methods showcase RNA-based fluorescent biosensors as versatile tools for studying c-di-GMP signaling in bacteria.

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