Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC Irvine

UC Irvine Previously Published Works bannerUC Irvine

Out‐of‐School Time and Behaviors During Adolescence


Although adolescents experience an array of out-of-school time (OST) settings, research has primarily focused on these settings in isolation. This study examined time in four OST settings (unsupervised time with peers, paid employment, sports, and nonsports organized activities) in relation to adolescent functioning at age 15 and the end of high school. Individual fixed effects analyses provided a more rigorous control of selection into OST activities by controlling for time-invariant observable and unobservable characteristics. More unsupervised time with peers predicted increases in risky and externalizing behaviors, whereas increases in paid employment predicted gains in work orientation and self-identity. Time in organized sports was associated with increased positive self-identity, highlighting the value of expanding consideration of multiple OST contexts and selection effects.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View