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Kilonova Luminosity Function Constraints Based on Zwicky Transient Facility Searches for 13 Neutron Star Merger Triggers during O3
 Author(s): Kasliwal, MM;
 Anand, S;
 Ahumada, T;
 Stein, R;
 Carracedo, AS;
 Andreoni, I;
 Coughlin, MW;
 Singer, LP;
 Kool, EC;
 De, K;
 Kumar, H;
 Almualla, M;
 Yao, Y;
 Bulla, M;
 Dobie, D;
 Reusch, S;
 Perley, DA;
 Cenko, SB;
 Bhalerao, V;
 Kaplan, DL;
 Sollerman, J;
 Goobar, A;
 Copperwheat, CM;
 Bellm, EC;
 Anupama, GC;
 Corsi, A;
 Nissanke, S;
 Agudo, I;
 Bagdasaryan, A;
 Barway, S;
 Belicki, J;
 Bloom, JS;
 Bolin, B;
 Buckley, DAH;
 Burdge, KB;
 Burruss, R;
 CaballeroGarcía, MD;
 Cannella, C;
 CastroTirado, AJ;
 Cook, DO;
 Cooke, J;
 Cunningham, V;
 Dahiwale, A;
 Deshmukh, K;
 Dichiara, S;
 Duev, DA;
 Dutta, A;
 Feeney, M;
 Franckowiak, A;
 Frederick, S;
 Fremling, C;
 GalYam, A;
 Gatkine, P;
 Ghosh, S;
 Goldstein, DA;
 Golkhou, VZ;
 Graham, MJ;
 Graham, ML;
 Hankins, MJ;
 Helou, G;
 Hu, Y;
 Ip, WH;
 Jaodand, A;
 Karambelkar, V;
 Kong, AKH;
 Kowalski, M;
 Khandagale, M;
 Kulkarni, SR;
 Kumar, B;
 Laher, RR;
 Li, KL;
 Mahabal, A;
 Masci, FJ;
 Miller, AA;
 Mogotsi, M;
 Mohite, S;
 Mooley, K;
 Mroz, P;
 Newman, JA;
 Ngeow, CC;
 Oates, SR;
 Patil, AS;
 Pandey, SB;
 Pavana, M;
 Pian, E;
 Riddle, R;
 SánchezRamírez, R;
 Sharma, Y;
 Singh, A;
 Smith, R;
 Soumagnac, MT;
 Taggart, K;
 Tan, H;
 Tzanidakis, A;
 Troja, E;
 Valeev, AF;
 Walters, R;
 Waratkar, G;
 Webb, S;
 Yu, PC
 et al.
Published Web Location
https://doi.org/10.3847/15384357/abc335Abstract
We present a systematic search for optical counterparts to 13 gravitational wave (GW) triggers involving at least one neutron star during LIGO/Virgo's third observing run (O3). We searched binary neutron star (BNS) and neutron star black hole (NSBH) merger localizations with the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and undertook followup with the Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen (GROWTH) collaboration. The GW triggers had a median localization area of 4480 deg2, a median distance of 267 Mpc, and falsealarm rates ranging from 1.5 to 1025 yr1. The ZTF coverage in the g and r bands had a median enclosed probability of 39%, median depth of 20.8 mag, and median time lag between merger and the start of observations of 1.5 hr. The O3 followup by the GROWTH team comprised 340 UltraViolet/Optical/InfraRed (UVOIR) photometric points, 64 OIR spectra, and three radio images using 17 different telescopes. We find no promising kilonovae (radioactivitypowered counterparts), and we show how to convert the upper limits to constrain the underlying kilonova luminosity function. Initially, we assume that all GW triggers are bona fide astrophysical events regardless of falsealarm rate and that kilonovae accompanying BNS and NSBH mergers are drawn from a common population; later, we relax these assumptions. Assuming that all kilonovae are at least as luminous as the discovery magnitude of GW170817 (16.1 mag), we calculate that our joint probability of detecting zero kilonovae is only 4.2%. If we assume that all kilonovae are brighter than16.6 mag (the extrapolated peak magnitude of GW170817) and fade at a rate of 1 mag day1 (similar to GW170817), the joint probability of zero detections is 7%. If we separate the NSBH and BNS populations based on the online classifications, the joint probability of zero detections, assuming all kilonovae are brighter than16.6 mag, is 9.7% for NSBH and 7.9% for BNS mergers. Moreover, no more than <57% (<89%) of putative kilonovae could be brighter than16.6 mag assuming flat evolution (fading by 1 mag day1) at the 90% confidence level. If we further take into account the online terrestrial probability for each GW trigger, we find that no more than <68% of putative kilonovae could be brighter than16.6 mag. Comparing to model grids, we find that some kilonovae must have M ej < 0.03 M o˙, X lan > 104, or φ > 30° to be consistent with our limits. We look forward to searches in the fourth GW observing run; even 17 neutron star mergers with only 50% coverage to a depth of16 mag would constrain the maximum fraction of bright kilonovae to <25%.
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