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Two-photon microscopy measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen using periarteriolar oxygen concentration gradients.


The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]) is an essential parameter for evaluating brain function and pathophysiology. However, the currently available approaches for quantifying [Formula: see text] rely on complex multimodal imaging and mathematical modeling. Here, we introduce a method that allows estimation of [Formula: see text] based on a single measurement modality-two-photon imaging of the partial pressure of oxygen ([Formula: see text]) in cortical tissue. We employed two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) and the oxygen-sensitive nanoprobe PtP-C343 to map the tissue [Formula: see text] distribution around cortical penetrating arterioles. [Formula: see text] is subsequently estimated by fitting the changes of tissue [Formula: see text] around arterioles with the Krogh cylinder model of oxygen diffusion. We measured the baseline [Formula: see text] in anesthetized rats and modulated tissue [Formula: see text] levels by manipulating the depth of anesthesia. This method provides [Formula: see text] measurements localized within [Formula: see text] and it may provide oxygen consumption measurements in individual cortical layers or within confined cortical regions, such as in ischemic penumbra and the foci of functional activation.

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