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Inflammatory processes, febrile seizures, and subsequent epileptogenesis.


Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of seizures in infants and preschool children. Inflammatory mediators, which are known triggers of fever, have also been implicated as contributors to the onset of these seizures. Evidence that inflammation is present following FS and during established epilepsy suggests that it could also influence epileptogenesis. However, the potential involvement of inflammatory mediators to the epileptogenic process that may follow prolonged FS has yet to be fully determined. This article reviews the current state of our knowledge and major gaps that remain by focusing on four questions: Does inflammation contribute to the generation of FS? Does prolonged FS or febrile status epilepticus (SE) cause temporal lobe epilepsy in the absence of predisposing factors? Does inflammation contribute to the process by which febrile SE causes limbic epilepsy? And finally, can inflammation be a foundation for biomarkers and therapy for FS-induced epileptogenesis?

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