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Internal temperature measurements in response to cryogen spray cooling of a skin phantom

  • Author(s): Torres, JH;
  • Anvari, B;
  • Tanenbaum, BS;
  • Milner, TE;
  • Yu, JC;
  • Nelson, JS
  • et al.

Published Web Location Commons 'BY' version 4.0 license

Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) can protect the epidermis from non-specific thermal injury during laser treatment of port wine stains and other hypervascular cutaneous malformations. Knowledge of skin internal temperatures in response to CSC is essential for optimization of this technique. We used an epoxy resin compound to construct a skin phantom and measured its internal temperatures in response to cooling with different cryogens at various spurt durations, spraying distances, and ambient humidity levels. The measured temperature distributions during CSC were fitted by a mathematical model based on thermal diffusion theory. For spurt durations up to 100 ms, temperature reduction within the phantom remained confined to the upper 200 μm, and was affected by spraying distance. Depending on the cryogen used, temperature reductions up to 45 °C could be measured 20 μm below the surface at the end of a 100 ms spurt. However, the cryogen film temperature on the epoxy resin surface was up to 35 °C lower, indicating lack of perfect thermal contact at the cryogen film-phantom interface. Theoretical predictions were within 10% of measured temperatures. Ice formation occurred following termination of the spurt and was influenced by the ambient humidity level.

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