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Dexmedetomidine reduces acute kidney injury after endovascular aortic repair of Stanford type B aortic dissection: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

  • Author(s): Shan, Xi-Sheng;
  • Dai, Hui-Rong;
  • Zhao, Dan;
  • Yang, Bi-Wen;
  • Feng, Xiao-Mei;
  • Liu, Hong;
  • Peng, Ke;
  • Ji, Fu-Hai
  • et al.
Abstract

Study objective

To determine the effect of dexmedetomidine on acute kidney injury (AKI) following endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for Stanford type B aortic dissection (TBAD).

Design

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study.

Setting

University Hospital.

Patients

102 TBAD patients undergoing EVAR procedures were enrolled. Patients with dissection involving aortic arch or renal artery were excluded.

Interventions

Patients were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to a dexmedetomidine group (intravenous dexmedetomidine 0.4 μg/kg/h immediately after anesthesia induction and 0.1 μg/kg/h after extubation, which was maintained until 24 h) or a normal saline control group.

Measurements

The primary outcome was the incidence of AKI within the first two days after surgery, based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. The secondary outcomes included serum cystatin C and estimated glomerular filtration rate on postoperative days 1, 2, and 7, and in-hospital need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Long-term outcomes included RRT and all-cause mortality.

Main results

Ninety-eight patients completed the study (dexmedetomidine, n = 48; control, n = 50). AKIN stage 1 AKI occurred in 3/48 (6.3%) patients receiving dexmedetomidine, compared with 11/50 (22%) patients receiving normal saline (odds ratio = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.89, P = 0.041). This difference remained significant after adjusting for baseline covariates (adjusted odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.84; P = 0.028). Dexmedetomidine led to a lower serum cystatin C on postoperative day 1 (median [IQR] mg/L: 1.31 [1.02-1.72] vs. 1.58 [1.28-1.96]). There were no between-group differences in other secondary or long-term outcomes. During the follow-up (median = 28.4 months), 1 patient in the dexmedetomidine group and 3 patients in the control group required RRT.

Conclusions

Dexmedetomidine reduced the incidence of AKI in TBAD patients after EVAR procedures. The long-term benefits of dexmedetomidine in this patient population warrant further investigation.

Trial registration

ChiCTR-IPR-15006372.

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