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Impacts of climate change on marine species invasions in northern hemisphere high-latitude ecosystems

  • Author(s): Mahanes, Samuel A.
  • Sorte, Cascade J. B.
  • et al.
Abstract

High-latitude marine ecosystems have experienced fewer species invasions than temperate marine ecosystems, a discrepancy that may be attributed to barriers such as low propagule pressure, extreme and seasonal abiotic conditions, and biotic resistance of relatively intact communities. Each of these barriers is being affected by climate change and increasing human activity in high-latitude (>55º N) areas. We reviewed the evidence for each of these barriers limiting species invasion in high-latitude areas in the northern hemisphere. Based on records from government documents of high‐latitude countries, non-native species appear to be increasing in number (in Denmark and the United States) although there remains a paucity of data on invasive species establishment for high-latitude regions. Future study is needed to identify the drivers and impacts of invasions at high latitudes so that managers looking to prevent invasions can focus their efforts on bolstering barriers to invasion in these unique ecosystems.

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