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Phylogeny of Drosophila and Related Genera: Conflict between Molecular and Anatomical Analyses


Drosophila species are extensively used in biological research; yet, important phylogenetic relationships within the genus and with related genera remain unresolved. The combined data for three genes (Adh, Sod, and Gpdh) statistically resolves outstanding issues. We define the genus Drosophila inclusively so as to include Scaptomyza and Zaprionus (considered distinct genera in the taxonomy of Wheeler, 1981) but excluding Scaptodrosophila. The genus Drosophila so defined is monophyletic. The subgenus Sophophora (including the melanogaster, obscura, and willistoni groups) is monophyletic and the sister clade to all other Drosophila subgenera. The Hawaiian Drosophila (including Scaptomyza) is a monophyletic group, but the subgenus Drosophila is not monophyletic, because the immigrans group is more closely related to the subgenus Hirtodrosophila than to other species of the subgenus Drosophila, such as the virilis and repleta groups.

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