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Antifragile Behavior Change Through Digital Health Behavior Change Interventions.

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Digital health behavior change interventions (DHBCIs) offer users accessible support, yet their promise to improve health behaviors at scale has not been met. One reason for this unmet potential may be a failure to offer users support that is tailored to their personal characteristics and goals. We apply the concept of antifragility to propose how DHBCIs could be better designed to support diverse users' behavior change journeys. We first define antifragility as a feature of an individual's relationship to a particular challenge such that if one is antifragile to a challenge, one is well positioned to benefit from facing that challenge. Second, we introduce antifragile behavior change to describe behavior change processes that leverage person-specific antifragilities to maximize benefits and minimize risk in the behavior change process. While most existing behavior change models focus on improving one's motivation and ability to face challenges, antifragile behavior change complements these models by helping to select challenges that are most likely to produce desired outcomes. Next, we propose three principles by which DHBCIs can help users to develop antifragile behavior change strategies: providing personalized guidance, embracing variance and exploration in choosing behaviors, and prioritizing user agency. Finally, we offer an example of how a DHBCI could be designed to support antifragile behavior change.

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