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Evaluating genome architecture of a complex region via generalized bipartite matching


Abstract With the remarkable development in inexpensive sequencing technologies and supporting computational tools, we have the promise of medicine being personalized by knowledge of the individual genome. Current technologies provide high throughput, but short reads. Reconstruction of the donor genome is based either on de novo assembly of the (short) reads, or on mapping donor reads to a standard reference. While such techniques demonstrate high success rates for inferring 'simple' genomic segments, they are confounded by segments with complex duplication patterns, including regions of direct medical relevance, like the HLA and the KIR regions. In this work, we address this problem with a method for assessing the quality of a predicted genome sequence for complex regions of the genome. This method combines two natural types of evidence: sequence similarity of the mapped reads to the predicted donor genome, and distribution of reads across the predicted genome. We define a new scoring function for read-to-genome matchings, which penalizes for sequence dissimilarities and deviations from expected read location distribution, and present an efficient algorithm for finding matchings that minimize the penalty. The algorithm is based on a formal problem, first defined in this paper, called Coverage Sensitive many-to-many min-cost bipartite Matching (CSM). This new problem variant generalizes the standard (one-to-one) weighted bipartite matching problem, and can be solved using network flows. The resulting Java-based tool, called SAGE (Scoring function for Assembled GEnomes), is freely available upon request. We demonstrate over simulated data that SAGE can be used to infer correct haplotypes of the highly repetitive KIR region on the Human chromosome 19.

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