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Adenomyosis and endometriosis in the California Teachers Study.



To evaluate the reproductive and lifestyle correlates of a surgically confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis or adenomyosis in a large prospective cohort.


Collection of surgical diagnoses of endometriosis and adenomyosis during follow-up of women with no prior history of endometriosis and no prior surgery for adenomyosis.


The California Teachers Study (CTS), an ongoing prospective study of female teachers and school administrators established from the rolls of the California State Teachers Retirement System.


Women with surgical diagnoses of endometriosis and adenomyosis were identified from California statewide hospital patient discharge records for CTS cohort members with an intact uterus and no prior history of endometriosis. Women with an incident surgical diagnosis of endometriosis (n = 229) or adenomyosis (n = 961) were compared with disease-free women in the same age range (for endometriosis, n = 43,493; for adenomyosis, n = 79,495).



Main outcome measure(s)

Multivariable logistic regression methods were used to calculate prevalence odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals for the associations between self-reported menstrual and reproductive characteristics and either endometriosis or adenomyosis.


Women surgically diagnosed with endometriosis were younger than those surgically diagnosed with adenomyosis. Factors statistically significantly associated with endometriosis were having a mother or sister with endometriosis and nulligravidity. Factors statistically significantly associated with adenomyosis were increasing parity, early menarche (Conclusion(s)These observations provide the first epidemiologic profile of women with a surgical diagnosis of adenomyosis and indicate that this profile differs from that of women with a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis. Our results also suggest that adenomyosis but not endometriosis is associated with increased endogenous exposure to estrogen.

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