Chemical and sensory analysis of commercial Navel oranges in California
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1038/s41538-019-0055-7
Seven lots of commercially available Navel oranges grown in California were evaluated with flavoromic, metabolomic, sensory descriptive analysis, and consumer testing techniques to identify sensory and chemical drivers of liking. Eight identified chemical clusters related to numerous sensory attributes and consumer preferences. Differences in adult and child preferences led to the discovery of six consumer clusters (four adult and two child). Sweetness, overall flavor, sourness, fruity flavor, and juiciness were identified as the main sensory drivers of liking for the consumers. Fructose, glucose, and proline were among the compounds that best explained perceived sweetness while sourness was correlated with citrate and ascorbate. Perceived fruity flavor increased with higher concentrations of ethanol. We conclude that consumers differ in their preferences for Navel oranges and desire fruit that is higher in both sweetness and sourness.