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Perovskite-polymer composite cross-linker approach for highly-stable and efficient perovskite solar cells


Manipulation of grain boundaries in polycrystalline perovskite is an essential consideration for both the optoelectronic properties and environmental stability of solar cells as the solution-processing of perovskite films inevitably introduces many defects at grain boundaries. Though small molecule-based additives have proven to be effective defect passivating agents, their high volatility and diffusivity cannot render perovskite films robust enough against harsh environments. Here we suggest design rules for effective molecules by considering their molecular structure. From these, we introduce a strategy to form macromolecular intermediate phases using long chain polymers, which leads to the formation of a polymer-perovskite composite cross-linker. The cross-linker functions to bridge the perovskite grains, minimizing grain-to-grain electrical decoupling and yielding excellent environmental stability against moisture, light, and heat, which has not been attainable with small molecule defect passivating agents. Consequently, all photovoltaic parameters are significantly enhanced in the solar cells and the devices also show excellent stability.

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