Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UC San Francisco Previously Published Works bannerUCSF

Sex-Dependent Effects of Perinatal Inflammation on the Brain: Implication for Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders


Individuals born preterm have higher rates of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, autistic spectrum, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. These conditions are often sexually dimorphic and with different developmental trajectories. The etiology is likely multifactorial, however, infections both during pregnancy and in childhood have emerged as important risk factors. The association between sex- and age-dependent vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders has been suggested to relate to immune activation in the brain, including complex interactions between sex hormones, brain transcriptome, activation of glia cells, and cytokine production. Here, we will review sex-dependent effects on brain development, including glia cells, both under normal physiological conditions and following perinatal inflammation. Emphasis will be given to sex-dependent effects on brain regions which play a role in neuropsychiatric disorders and inflammatory reactions that may underlie early-life programming of neurobehavioral disturbances later in life.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View