Visualizing the mechanical activation of Src
- Author(s): Wang, Y
- Botvinick, EL
- Zhao, Y
- Berns, MW
- Usami, S
- Tsien, RY
- Chien, S
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1038/nature03469
The mechanical environment crucially influences many cell functions1. However, it remains largely mysterious how mechanical stimuli are transmitted into biochemical signals. Src is known to regulate the integrin-cytoskeleton interaction2, which is essential for the transduction of mechanical stimuli3-5. Using fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET), here we develop a genetically encoded Src reporter that enables the imaging and quantification of spatio-temporal activation of Src in live cells. We introduced a local mechanical stimulation to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by applying laser-tweezer traction on fibronectin-coated beads adhering to the cells. Using the Src reporter, we observed a rapid distal Src activation and a slower directional wave propagation of Src activation along the plasma membrane. This wave propagated away from the stimulation site with a speed (mean ± s.e.m.) of 18.1 ± 1.7 nm s-1. This force-induced directional and long-range activation of Src was abolished by the disruption of actin filaments or microtubules. Our reporter has thus made it possible to monitor mechanotransduction in live cells with spatio-temporal characterization. We find that the transmission of mechanically induced Src activation is a dynamic process that directs signals via the cytoskeleton to spatial destinations.
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