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The association of lower urinary tract symptoms, depression and suicidal ideation: data from the 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2013.12.012
PurposeWe examine the association among depression, suicidal ideation and self-reported lower urinary tract symptoms using a large, cross-sectional, population based study.
Materials and methodsThe study included 2,890 men from the 2005-2006 or 2007-2008 cycles of the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) who were 40 years old or older. Men were asked if they experienced nocturia, urinary hesitancy and/or incomplete bladder emptying. The PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) was used to determine the likelihood of clinical depression and suicidal ideation.
ResultsThe prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms was 33.7% and 10.3% for men reporting 1 and 2 or more symptoms, respectively. Moderate to severe depression (PHQ-9 score 10 or greater) and suicidal ideation were reported by 181 (6.3%) and 105 (3.6%) men, respectively. Men reporting moderate to severe depression (compared to those reporting minimal depression) had a higher odds of reporting lower urinary tract symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.09, 95% CI 3.17-8.17 for PHQ-9 score 5 to 9 and AOR 7.62, 95% CI 3.90-14.87 for PHQ-9 score 10 or greater; p trend <0.0001). More lower urinary tract symptoms were associated with a significantly higher odds of moderate to severe depression (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 1.86-5.15 for 1 symptom and AOR 8.06, 95% CI 4.18-15.53 for 2 or more symptoms, p trend <0.0001) and a higher odds of suicidal ideation (AOR 1.70, 95% CI 0.85-3.42 and AOR 2.71, 95% CI 1.40-5.25, respectively, p trend = 0.004).
ConclusionsA significant relationship was observed between lower urinary tract symptoms and depression/suicidal ideation. While the pathophysiology of the relationship and its significance in clinical practice remain unclear, clinicians may consider screening men with severe lower urinary tract symptoms for depression.
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