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Integrated pulse scope for tunable generation and intrinsic characterization of structured femtosecond laser.


Numerous techniques have been demonstrated for effective generation of orbital angular momentum-carrying radiation, but intracavity generation of continuously tunable pulses in the femtosecond regime remains challenging. Even if such a creation was realized, the generated pulses-like all pulses in reality-are complex and transitory objects that can only be comprehensively characterized via multidimensional spaces. An integrated lasing system that generates pulses while simultaneously quantifies them can achieve adaptive pulse tailoring. Here, we report a femtosecond pulse scope that unifies vector vortex mode-locked lasing and vectorial quantification. With intracavity-controlled Pancharatnam-Berry phase modulation, continuous and ergodic generation of spirally polarized states along a broadband higher-order Poincaré sphere was realized. By intrinsically coupling a two-dimensional polarization-sensitive time-scanning interferometer to the laser, multidimensional spatiotemporal features of the pulse were further visualized. The proposed methodology paves the way for design optimization of ultrafast optics by integrating complex femtosecond pulse generation and structural customization, facilitating its applications in optical physics research and laser-based manufacturing.

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