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A Descriptive Study of Hospital- and Community-acquired Pressure Ulcers/Injuries.


Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers/injuries (HAPU/I) have been a major focus of research, but information about community-acquired pressure ulcer/injuries (CAPU/I) is limited. PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to compare HAPU/I and CAPU/I in a 620-bed academic medical center in the western United States. METHODS:This descriptive study involved prospective/retrospective data collected from the National Data for Nursing Quality Indicators, including pressure ulcer stage (January 1, 2015, through December 31, 2017); the hospital's incident reporting system (January 1, 2017, through December 31, 2017); electronic medical records (EMR) as needed for verification; and the hospital's pressure ulcer registry (January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2017), developed by both EMR and manual extraction. Data regarding point prevalence, length of stay (LOS), source of admission, ulcer stage, and frequency of hospital encounters from patients at least 18 years of age with a pressure ulcer/injury documented in their records were abstracted. Data from pregnant or incarcerated persons and persons with missing or incomplete information on staging or origin of admission were excluded. Variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS:The number of patients with data reviewed for point prevalence was 1787 for 2015, 1989 for 2016, and 1917 for 2017. For 2015, the average CAPU/I and HAPU/I point prevalence was 6.6% and 0.8%, respectively; for 2016, 6.0% and 1.5%, respectively; and for 2017, 6.9% and 0.9%, respectively. The average LOS for patients analyzed for 2017 admitted with a CAPU/I or HAPU/I was 10.5 days and 38.9 days, respectively. Hospital encounters were more frequent in the CAPU/I than in the HAPU/I group, with 821 CAPU/encounters compared to 45 HAPU/I encounters. The majority of patients with a HAPU/I (80%) or CAPU/I (65.4%) were admitted from home. CONCLUSION:In this study, CAPU/I were more prevalent than HAPU/I and most patient encounters originated from home. More descriptive research that includes staging and source of admission is needed to document the rate of CAPU/I and characteristics of HAPU/I compared to CAPU/I in order to optimize pressure ulcer/injury practices across the continuum of care.

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