Efficiency of Launching Highly Confined Polaritons by Infrared Light Incident on a Hyperbolic Material
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Efficiency of Launching Highly Confined Polaritons by Infrared Light Incident on a Hyperbolic Material

  • Author(s): Dai, Siyuan
  • Ma, Qiong
  • Yang, Yafang
  • Rosenfeld, Jeremy
  • Goldflam, Michael D
  • McLeod, Alex
  • Sun, Zhiyuan
  • Andersen, Trond I
  • Fei, Zhe
  • Liu, Mengkun
  • Shoa, Yinming
  • Watanabe, Kenji
  • Taniguchi, Takashi
  • Thiemens, Mark
  • Keilmann, Fritz
  • Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo
  • Fogler, Michael M
  • Basov, DN
  • et al.
Abstract

We investigated emission and propagation of polaritons in a two dimensional van der Waals material hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). Our specific emphasis in this work is on hyperbolic phonon polariton emission that we investigated by means of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy. Real-space nano-images detail how the polaritons are launched in several common arrangements including: light scattering by the edges of the crystal, metallic nanostructures deposited on the surface of hBN crystals, as well as random defects and impurities. Notably, the scanned tip of the near-field microscope is itself an efficient polariton launcher. Our analysis reveals that the scanning tips are superior to other types of emitters we have investigated. Furthermore, the study of polariton emission and emission efficiency may provide insights for development of polaritonic devices and for fundamental studies of collective modes in other van der Waals materials.

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