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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Validation of a Brief Questionnaire Against Direct Observation to Assess Adolescents' School Lunchtime Beverage Consumption.

  • Author(s): Grummon, Anna H
  • Hampton, Karla E
  • Hecht, Amelie
  • Oliva, Ariana
  • McCulloch, Charles E
  • Brindis, Claire D
  • Patel, Anisha I
  • et al.

OBJECTIVE:Beverage consumption is an important determinant of youth health outcomes. Beverage interventions often occur in schools, yet no brief validated questionnaires exist to assess whether these efforts improve in-school beverage consumption. This study validated a brief questionnaire to assess beverage consumption during school lunch. METHODS:Researchers observed middle school students' (n = 25) beverage consumption during school lunchtime using a standardized tool. After lunch, students completed questionnaires regarding their lunchtime beverage consumption. Kappa statistics compared self-reported with observed beverage consumption across 15 beverage categories. RESULTS:Eight beverages showed at least fair agreement (kappa [κ] > 0.20) for both type and amount consumed, with most showing substantial agreement (κ > 0.60). One beverage had high raw agreement but κ < 0.20. Six beverages had too few ratings to compute κ's. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:This brief questionnaire was useful for assessing school lunchtime consumption of many beverages and provides a low-cost tool for evaluating school-based beverage interventions.

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