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Intracranial hemorrhage due to central venous occlusion from hemodialysis access: A case report


Central venous stenosis in hemodialysis patients rarely causes venous hypertension and intracranial hemorrhage. A 54 year-old male with right arm arteriovenous fistula was transferred to our institution in a comatose state following right parietal venous infarction. Fistulography showed right brachiocephalic vein (BCV) occlusion with reflux into the right transverse sinus and obstruction of left internal jugular vein outflow due to the styloid process. Balloon venoplasty of the right BCV occlusion failed to improve the patient's status because of the delayed diagnosis. Headaches and neurologic symptoms in hemodialysis patients can herald intracranial hypertension due to central venous occlusion and needs prompt assessment with fistulography.

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